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对华为孟晚舟的引渡听证暴露了加拿大的检控漏洞





美国洛杉矶时报日前报道说,当华为技术有限公司的首席财务官孟晚舟在法庭上首次辩称加拿大在去年12月逮捕她时践踏了她的宪法权利时,她的辩护显得有些空洞。
 
孟万洲不是加拿大公民。她在温哥华机场被拘留了三个小时。她已被保释,并住在温哥华的一栋豪宅里。
 
从表面上看,孟晚舟的被捕过程似乎并没有粗暴地滥用加拿大的《权利与自由宪章》,因为这会使美国的引渡请求流产。
 
然而,在截至10月3日周四结束的为期两周的法庭听证会上,她的律师们揭露了加拿大在逮捕她过程中的问题,包括边境官员承认“错误地”与警方共享了她的手机密码。这让加拿大对孟的检控遇到了麻烦。


 
孟的律师团队中的一位律师芬顿(Scott Fenton)对法官说:“孟晚舟上了他们的当。”他指控加拿大边境服务局,警察和美国联邦调查局非法用盘问移民的方式来套孟晚舟的证据,然后用这些证据指控她。
 
根据孟的证词,孟的逮捕令要求将她“立即”逮捕,但加拿大边境却先将她拘留了三个小时,表面上是为了确定她是否可以入境。然而问题在于:
 
1、鉴于有逮捕令在等她,孟绝不存在被拒绝入境的问题。
2、边境官根本就没有让她入境,因为孟的移民身份在加拿大是否有效还没有结论。
3、边境官从没告诉过孟为什么她要被盘问。她在被捕几个小时后才被告知她有保持沉默的权利。
 
边境官们说,他们没有与警察或联邦调查局合作,但问题是:
 
1、边境官们盘问了孟有关华为在伊朗的业务。孟当时不知美国已经发出了引渡要求,对孟的指控与美国制裁伊朗有关。但起诉书当时还没有被美国法院解封。



2、边境官们将孟的随身电子设备放在特殊的袋子中,以防止它们被远程遥控篡改。这是FBI的特殊要求,而不是普通的边境检查程序。
3、边境官们将孟的电子设备的密码交给了警方。在法庭出示的一封电子邮件显示,一名边境官后来承认他将密码“错误地给了警方”,因此,电子设备里的文件不能用作证据。
 
孟的律师指控一名加拿大警官用电子邮件将孟的手机和平板电脑的开机识别码发给给了美国联邦调查局的司法官,这等于是非法走捷径去获取孟的电子设备里的文件,而美国有可能借此收集更多针对孟的证据。
 
加拿大检控官已经提出异议或试图淡化这些问题的重要性。但主持此案的法官福尔摩斯(Heather Holmes)似乎不断地怀疑检控方的做法,严厉拷问检察官。
 
孟的律师要求法庭命令加拿大政府出示更多的逮捕她的细节。10月3日/周四,法官要求双方给法庭提供更多的证据,以决定加拿大警方是否真的与美国联邦调查局共享有关信息。预计法官至少要等到10月16日才能做出决定。如果孟的律师要对警察或其他人员进行盘问,法官的决定可能会更晚。


 
不管如何,孟的律师试图证明政府在滥用移民和司法程序。如果成功,法院可以中止引渡程序。
 
对于孟来说,这是漫长的反引渡所迈出的第一步,在这场法庭较量中,她的胜算不高。加拿大司法部称,自2008年以来,美国向加拿大发出了798个引渡要求,其中只有8个被加拿大拒绝或撤销。
 
尽管如此,孟晚舟开始采用施展魅力来打赢这场官司。
 
孟在被捕时穿着名牌Abercrombie & Fitch连帽衫。在被捕后的一段时间里,她偏爱穿瑜伽裤和运动鞋。但孟在出庭时每天都穿着4英寸的细根高跟鞋和名牌连衣裙,电子镣铐也在众目睽睽之下。她过去经常戴着毛线帽,低着头匆匆躲避人们的视线。如今,尽管天气寒冷,她每天早晨在离开自己的豪宅时会脱掉外套,允许记者们给她拍照。


 
本月出庭期间,她接受了中国电视台的首次采访,以纪念共产党执政70周年。
 
与被中国抓的人相比,孟的这种魅力攻势非常有讽刺意味。在孟被捕后的几天内,两名加拿大人科夫里格(Michael Kovrig)和斯帕沃(Michael Spavor)在中国被抓,他们只能偶尔与加拿大外交官见面。孟的逮捕以及对科夫里格和斯帕沃尔的被抓使加拿大与其第二大贸易伙伴之间的关系陷入了自1970年建交以来最黑暗的时期,且几乎没有缓解的希望。
 
同时,孟的引渡案继续揭示了一名妇女的个性和生活。虽然她是华为创始人、亿万富翁任正非的千斤大小姐,但直到被捕之前,世人几乎对她一无所知。
 
直到去年十二月,孟晚舟从来没有遇到法律上的麻烦,甚至没有吃过交通告票。除了在温哥华的两套房屋外,她在香港也有两套,深圳一套,伦敦三套。这些房子都被出租。她是一个商业巨人,对所有事物都情有独钟:iPad上有小熊维尼贴纸,背包上的粉彩泡泡糖,甚至USB记忆棒也挂着樱花吊饰。


 
备受瞩目的孟晚舟一案日益引起人们的异议,即加拿大边防局在缺乏监督和过时法律的情况下运作。今年 6月,安省一家法院谴责了加拿大边境局的“严重的,过时的的和系统性的”搜索电子设备的方式。
 
加拿大国会的道德委员会在2017年12月的一份报告中批评该机构还像检查内衣那样来检查电子设备,并呼吁设立电子设备搜索的新法律。
 
代表加拿大律师协会的隐私律师弗雷泽(David Fraser)在国会道德委员会上作证时说:“边境局说他们没有搜过境旅客的电子设备,他们没有违法。但即使法律允许他们这么做,我们仍认为这种做法违宪。”



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