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拥有汽车会伤害您的健康吗?
Does owning a car hurt your health?





(大中报/096.ca讯):根据环球邮报的报道,上个月,新西兰的研究人员的一项研究表明,自行车通勤者的寿命比汽车通勤者更长。按照人们的固有观念,人们对这个结论基本没有异议。

这是一项很有意义的研究,它从普查数据中抽取了近500万份问卷,排除了因年龄,收入,教育程度,社区和其他潜在各种因素带来的影响差异。尽管如此,还是很难对那些骑车上班的或开车上班的人做出量化的结论,究竟哪一种会对健康带来很显著的影响。

今天你也许关心的话题:

16位健康法专家:因新冠病毒禁旅行者入境违法
孽障不除 国运无望
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想要阅读与本文有关的话题?请点击本文末的链接!



开车是否损害健康需要进行随机试验。这个结论是不能轻易得出的。

中国北京的数据可以证明这一结论。由于交通拥堵,北京自2011年以来将新车牌照的发行数量限制在每年240,000张。这些排照每月发行一次,以摇号中签的方式进行,成功率为五十分之一。最近,加州大学伯克利分校、中国人民大学和北京交通研究所的研究人员在《英国医学杂志》上发表文章称,他们利用一个自然的实验模型,证明了汽车对人体健康的影响。

在伯克利经济学家安德森(Michael Anderson)的带领下,研究人员跟踪了180名赢家(获得汽车牌照者)和757名输家(没有拿到牌照者)约有五年的时间,并研究了有车和没车之间的差异。

安德森在一份声明中指出,“中签的随机性让我们对研究的数据充满信心,我们知道,除了拥有汽车外,赢家与输家在各方面具有可比性。”

毫不奇怪,赢家每周在北京密集的公共交通网络中的乘车次数减少了2.9次,使用量下降了45%。 他们每天步行或骑自行车的时间也比输家的少24.2分钟,下降幅度为54%。

 

您会认为这些行为变化一定会对健康产生影响。数据显示,赢家的平均体重仅增加了两公斤多,在统计上显得并不突出。但从年龄在50岁或50岁以上的赢家来看,他们的平均体重显著增加了10.3公斤,这在统计上意义重大且令人担忧。

该结果与大量先前的研究一致,这些研究发现,车主的体重比非车主更重。新西兰人口普查数据发表在《国际流行病学杂志》上,其案例更能说明问题,因为它们将通勤模式与最明确的健康指标--死亡联系在了一起。

但是,在安德森研究的北京随机数据最终表明,汽车拥有者,而非那些想开车的人,他们的出行习惯最终会影响健康。

这个结论并不足为奇,也并非是拥有汽车者所独有。哈佛大学进化人类学家利伯曼(Daniel Lieberman)表示,大多数事物都有好有坏。比如舒适就有利有弊,我们要看它所带来的后果。”

利伯曼指出,人在选择事物是都会以节省能源为出发点,不考虑再生能源,不考虑能否让人更加健康,因此在对电梯还是楼梯的选择中,自然而然选择电梯。如果有车,自然要使用汽车,而不让它闲在家里。克服这些陋惯需要很大的毅力,或自己能逆流而上,营造一种环境让能产生正面效果的选择更为容易。

安德森的研究表明,城市汽车的“需求管理”方案(例如拥堵费,行车费和行人专用区)是很有实际意义的。

他表示:“汽车对公共健康的影响非常重要。虽然它在全球范围内节省了数万亿小时的出行时间,但由于交通事故,汽车污染和与肥胖相关的疾病,人们的寿命同样也缩短了数万亿小时。”






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