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美国拜登政府芯片禁令直击中国科技“七寸”(观点)
Opinion: Biden’s chip ban will force China to step backward in technological time


受“战狼”野心驱使并在北京的全力支持下,中国近年来在科技行业取得了重大的进展。从电动汽车到 5G 网络,中国在全球科技领域的许多方面超过了美国,从技术成就中获得了数万亿美元的收入。 在中国的科技飞跃给美国带来巨大威胁,促使美国政府采取一切可能的措施来阻止中国的技术增长。 在特朗普政府的制裁和出口管制给中国科技业带来了四年的“皮肉之苦”后,拜登政府更出创意新招,通过芯片禁令直击中国科技“七寸”。

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Driven by a wolf cultural ambition and with all-on-deck support from Beijing, China has gained significant advances in the tech industry in recent years. It has overtaken the US in many aspects of the global technology leadership – from electric cars to 5G networks, raking in trillions of income generated by technological achievements. Amid the growing threats posed by China's technological dominance, Washington has made an all-out effort to curb its “unstoppable rising”. After four years of the Trump administration’s sanctions and export controls that inflicted flesh wounds on China, the Biden team appears to have found the jugular, tapping into a more creative way to curtail China –issuing the chip ban.

超薄的、只有指甲大小的半导体芯片是高科技行业的心脏,从智能手机到人工智能技术都离不开它。 芯片制造是一个极其复杂的过程,从设计到制造是由从美国,欧洲到亚洲等数家全球公司商业携手共同完成。 美国在这一过程起到主导性的作用,AMD、高通、英特尔、苹果和英伟达在芯片设计方面独占鳌头,而 Synopsys 和 Cadence 在设计工具和软件方面表现。 荷兰公司 ASML 与一家德国公司 Zeiss SMT 合作,使用一家荷兰公司、一家日本公司和三名加利福尼亚公司生产的设备将设计雕刻成芯片。赢得了该联盟每个成员的信任的台积电 (TSMC) 是全球首屈一指的芯片制造商, 全球90% 的体积远比病毒还小的 5 nm 芯片是由该公司制造。 微芯片的成功是没有中国参与的全球高科技合作力量的写照。



The wafer-thin and fingernail-sized semiconductor chips are the new oil of the high-tech industry used in everything from smartphones to AI technology. The chip-making is a convoluted process, requiring the business coalition of global companies from America to Europe to Asia. The US dominates the critical parts of the process – with AMD, Qualcomm, Intel, Apple, and Nvidia excelling at the design of chips and Synopsys and Cadence at design tools and software. ASML, a Dutch company, works with a German company Zeiss SMT to carve the design into silicon, using devices produced by one Dutch company, one Japanese, and three Californians. Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) is the premier manufacturer of chips in the world, which has earned the trust of every member of this coalition. It produces 90% of 5 nm chips, a fraction of the size of most viruses. Microchips are a testament to the power of global cooperation without China’s participation.

中国已将芯片自给自足立为高科技行业目标,向芯片行业投资高达数十亿美元,截至 2020 年 10 月,该行业已创建 58000 家半导体公司。 但金钱并不能保证尖端技术的成功。中国的设备制造商仍然落后于海外同行数年,且其大规模生产能力仅限于14 纳米芯片,比最先进的台湾的芯片制造业落后三四代。 中国领先的芯片制造商中芯国际成功开发了先进的7纳米生产技术,给世界带来了不小的震动。 但利用这一突破进行大规模生产仍需要多年的时间。



China has pursued self-reliance in making the state of art silicon chips, pouring billions of dollars into its chip industry which saw 58000 semiconductor companies created by Oct.2020. But money does not guarantee success in cutting-edge technology. China’s equipment makers remain several years behind their overseas counterparts while its mass production capacity limits at 14nm chips, three or four generations behind the most advanced Taiwan manufacturing. SMIC, China’s leading chip maker, successfully developed an advanced 7 nm, delivering a bit of a shock to the world. But it might take years for China to exploit the breakthrough on a large scale.

中国对芯片开发这一尖端技术的大规模投资却丝毫未能减少其对全球供应链的严重依赖。 2020 年,中国国内芯片生产量仅满足其芯片需求的 15.9%,仅略高于 2014 年 15.1% 。据中国官方媒体报道,中国 2021 年在购买半导体芯片上的支出为 $4140 亿美元,超过了石油购买额,其中 36% 来自台湾。



China’s mass investment has barely made a dent in its heavy reliance on the global supply chain for cutting-edge technology. China’s domestic chip production met only 15.9 percent of its chip demand in 2020, barely higher than its 15.1 percent share in 2014. According to Chinese state media, China spent $414 billion on semiconductors in 2021, exceeding oil purchases, with 36 percent from Taiwan.  

除了少数例外,美国的芯片禁令禁止中国购买国际上最先进的芯片和芯片制造仪器,迫使中国科技领域倒退,不得不使用在行业技术上已属落后的芯片。与美国政府此前的只是禁止向特定公司(如华为)销售某些产品制裁措施相比,拜登政府的大规模芯片禁令对中国科技行业造成更大伤害。该禁令还不准许美国籍人士为中国芯片行业工作,其后果更是如同雪上加霜,将导致在中国芯片公司工作的高管和核心研究人员大规模辞职。

With few exceptions, the US chip ban prohibits China from buying the best chips in the global markets and the machines to build them, forcing China to step backward in technological time and use less advanced chips that the industry has long since moved past. The new rules will have much more devastating impacts on China chip industry than previous sanctions by the US government, which only banned sales of certain products to specific companies – like Huawei. Fueling the flame was the ban from hiring Americans to work for China’s chip industry, which could lead to a mass resignation of top executives and core research staff working at Chinese chip firms.





拜登的芯片禁令对中国的打击可谓一石二鸟。一方面,它将切断中国的微芯片供应,对中国的科技产业造成严重打击。另一方面,让中国意识到有来自这个自治岛屿的源源不断的芯片供应的日子是多么舒心,从而削弱中国对台湾的军事野心。

Biden’s chip ban is an excellent way of killing two birds with one stone. On the one hand, it will chock off China’s access to microchips, dealing a hash blow to China’s tech industry. On the other hand, it will curtail China’s military ambition on Taiwan by making it realize that it is much better off with the steady flow of chips from the self-governing island.

然而,拜登的芯片禁令可能会加剧美国、中国大陆和台湾之间的贸易战,对这些国家的经济产生负面影响,并在全球经济中引发连锁反应。Primum Law Group 律师行的企业律师兼创始人 Svetlana Kamyshanskaya 表示:“芯片禁令最终将使消费者利益受损。”

However, Biden’s chip ban may escalate trade battles between the US, China, and Taiwan, negatively affecting the economy of the countries involved and causing ripple effects in the global economy, says Svetlana Kamyshanskaya, a corporate lawyer and founder of Primum Law Group. “At the end of the day, consumers suffer.”



但许多消费者会愿意为此付出代价。 归根结底,任何持有民主价值观的人都不想生活在一个由中国专制政府控制的世界里。

But consumers may be willing to pay that price. Ultimately, no one holding democratic values wants to live in a world where authoritarian China gains the upper hand.

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